asdf and terraform (or vault or packer)

Using the asdf version manager to manage versions of various binaries like terraform, vault or packer is easily done by following the instructions below:

  1. Download and install asdf if you haven’t got it already (
  2. If you want to install the latest version of terraform for example do the following:

HAProxy load balancing with ssl pass_through in front of Vault


You would like to set up HAProxy as the load balancer in your Vault cluster configuration. Vault is set up with internal storage (Raft), and you would also like to be able to pass the connection encrypted from the client to the Vault cluster member, without having HAProxy decrypt/encrypt the message.


Looking and searching around in the internet provides a few examples of how to do this. During this process there are different errors that you can see happening. There are certain things that you will need to do in order to debug and find the correct setup.

One of the main points is that HAProxy’s frontend and backend mode should be tcp instead of http.

Another thing that will help with debugging would be having access to both HAProxy’s and Vault (active) member logs.

Using curl with the -v flag is also very helpful.

One of the attempts of having HAProxy and Vault server communicate through HTTP/2 was resulting in the following errors:

on an external client (not HAProxy, or Vault).

the following on the HAProxy log:

and the following on the Vault log

Changing the configuration on HAProxy to use http1.1 solves the issue (/etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg

Which results in the correct response now by using the HAProxy as a ssl pass_through load balancer.

Tail Vault auth logs


You would like to tail the Vault auth log files, but if you use the vault tag for auditing and your server is also named vault, you cannot filter out the vault auth logs only.


Use the client_login as the filter in grep:

Error initializing storage of type raft: failed to create fsm: failed to open bolt file: open /home/vault/data/vault.db: permission denied


Trying to start the vault server following the guides that specify creating the data directory in /home/vault/data results in the above error and service cannot be started.


According to the guide here:, changing the data directory to /opt/raft and the hcl file to reflect that the server can be started without any errors.